Memorial Windows

St James' Church Memorial Windows

These Memorial Windows were designed and created by Caroline Benyon, Fellow of the Master Glass Painters.

They are a First World War Memorial to the Portuguese, and they are to be found in the Roman Catholic Church of St James, 61 Pope’s Grove, Twickenham.

The window to the right commemorates the humanitarian work of Dom Manuel II, the last King of Portugal, and a member of the Parish of St James, Twickenham, from 1913 to 1932, when living in exile at Fulwell Park.

At the outbreak of War, The King placed himself at the service of the British Red Cross, and toured hospitals throughout the United Kingdom. Thanks to his own efforts, an Orthopaedic Military Hospital was opened in Shepherd’s Bush in 1916. His name is also associated with the Hammersmith Military Hospital and, above all, linked to the adoption of a new orthopaedic treatment method, which had been followed on the Continent.

This window depicts the Archangel Raphael, who healed the father of Tobit, surmounted on symbols of the healing work of the King. In the centre of the window is a Caravel, a Portuguese ship developed in the 15th Century, and the cipher of the Anglo-Portuguese Society, to reflect the financial support given by the Members of the Society.

The window to the left is in honour of the Portuguese who fell in the First World War. Between 1914 and 1918 more than 100,000 Portuguese Troops went to war. They fought in Africa and in Flanders, suffering nearly 40,000 casualties. Almost 12,000 men died, including Africans from both Angola and Mozambique serving in its Armed Forces.

When the Battle of the Lys broke out on 9 April 1918, two depleted Portuguese Divisions, wanting in officers and men, had to take on nearly 10 German Divisions (8 German Divisions spread over three successive lines of attack, and another 4 German Divisions held in Reserve.)

In this window, the Archangel Michael, who drove Lucifer from Heaven, surmounts symbols of the War. The small fleur de lys, bear several allusions, including the name of the battle itself.

These Memorial Windows were dedicated by His Excellency Manuel Lobo Antunes LVO, Ambassador of Portugal, and by Field Marshal the Lord Guthrie GCB, on Monday 9 April 2018, to mark the Centenary Anniversary of the Battle of the Lys.

They were Blessed by The Right Reverend John Wilson, Titular Bishop of Lindisfarne. St James Church, Twickenham was opened by Cardinal Manning in 1885. King Manuel and Queen Victoria of Portugal came to the Parish in late November 1913 and they lived at Fulwell Park. They regularly attended Mass at St James’s occupying places in the alcove where the present organ is situated.

The King and Queen were Godparents to many Confirmation candidates in the Parish. King Manuel died suddenly of a throat infection which was not treated properly. Queen Victoria returned to Germany soon after and she remarried. She died in 1966.

Various silver altar vessels left to the Church by the King are still in use. The Queen also passed on to St James’s Church the musical organ which the King played. This was still in use in the 1980s.

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Parish Church St George, West Grinstead


When: Saturday 4th August 2018 at 7pm

Where: St George’s Church, West Grinstead, Horsham RH13 8NF

Price: Free (Limited to 100 places)


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The Hornungs, An Anglo-Portuguese Family During the First World War

Remembrance and War Memorials force us to draw lessons from the past in order to construct a better future. “There But Not There,” supports six military charities: “Walking with the Wounded, Combat Stress, The Royal Foundation, Help for Heroes, Equinox (a veteran housing project with medical students) and the Commonwealth War Graves Commission.

Let him who would see the sweet simplicity of the countryside try to find West Grinstead Church. Walk down the raised flagged causeway to the little bridge across the Adur, and turn around and look at the silver shingled spire, at the golden lichen roof, across the meadow. There is no village of West Grinstead: there is just a corner of a green field for ever England. Wherever our English spirit lives, it must be here.

When West Grinstead went to war, three of its men were the Anglo-Portuguese sons of Pitt and Laura Hornung, one of them, and both brothers-in-law are, along with far too many others, remembered in this beautiful ancient Saxon Church. Their perspex silhouettes are a poignant reminder of the disproportionate loss suffered by this hamlet in West Sussex.

Already by the end of the first year of the war it was obvious to Pitt Hornung that his financial fortunes had turned, and in the years to follow he became a multi-millionaire. Between 1914 and 1920 the Sena Sugar Factories produced and sold 187,412 tons of sugar at an average price of £60 per ton. Pitt’s share of the proceeds amounted to well over £2,000,000, the equivalent of nearly £87,000,000 today.

Such a fortune had come about by the huge personal loss to himself and to mankind. Like his father before him, Pitt too, was gentle, brave and generous.

Pitt financed the building of Horsham Hospital, much of which was designed for the care of wounded veterans. He also gave generously to his own family establishing both his widowed daughters in London, and both his surviving sons in West Sussex. In Portugal he bought Quinta Dos Azulejos, in Lumiar, Lisbon for Laura’s sisters.

He paid for the War Memorial in The Parish Church of St George West Grinstead, and for the War Memorial at the end of Mill Lane, built on a corner of the property which he had bought for his youngest brother, the author and creator of “Raffles,” E W Hornung, and his wife Constance. Mary Doyle the mother of Sir Arthur Conan-Doyle, and of Constance Hornung was installed in a house near to the Crawley & Horsham Hunt Kennels at West Grinstead.

Camm was commissioned to design and create a First World War Memorial to Pitt and Laura’s youngest son, John Peter Hornung and to both their sons-in-law, Arthur Houssemayne Du Boulay and Francis Spencer Collin.

Pitt Hornung established the Hornung Trust to provide financial support for the Parish and Church of St George, West Grinstead, and his widow Laura added substantially to this with a generous bequest on her death in 1962.

Soon after the death of their eldest son Bernard, who had served as Senior British Liaison Officer to the Portuguese Artillery from April 1917 through to the Armistice, the Hornung family, in 1968, commissioned Carl Edwards to design and create the Hornung Memorial Window. Fifty years later Fr Ulick Loring commissioned Carl Edwards’s daughter, Caroline Benyon to design and create the Portuguese First World War Memorial Windows in the Roman Catholic Church of St James, Twickenham. A remarkable coincidence, linking two churches with a significant Portuguese heritage.

Bernard Hornung, Pitt Hornung’s great grandson, will deliver an illustrated talk on the Hornungs, an Anglo-Portuguese family during the First World War. He will mention the Portuguese Training Camp at Roffey, Horsham, his grandfather’s service with the Portuguese Artillery, and the two Hornung, Memorial Windows.

This event is free to attend and it will be held at the Parish Church of St George, West Grinstead on Saturday 4 August at 7 p.m. Bernard will speak for about 45 minutes after which there will be time for questions. Refreshments will be served.

In order to have some idea of numbers those wishing to attend are most kindly requested to complete the Eventbrite booking form, or to email or telephone the event organiser.  There will be a retiring collection for, Remembrance “There But Not There.” Thank you.



When: Thursday 20th September 2018

Where: Cavalry & Guards Club, 127 Piccadilly, London, W1J 7PX

Price: £TBC (Limited to 34 places)


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Wine Tasting, Cavalry & Guards Club

Full Details TBC

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Visit To The Church of St James', Twickenham

Visit to the Church of St James’, Twickenham, description of the Memorial Windows, illustrated talk on Dom Manuel II in exile in Twickenham, his connection with the church, and his personal and selfless contribution to the Allied cause. Guest speaker TBC.

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Close to the Neuve-Chapelle Indian Memorial stands a white walled cemetery with an imposing entrance. On one side stands the Chapel dedicated to Our Lady of Fatima; on the other, the Portuguese National Cemetery of Richebourg, which is the final resting place of 1,831 Portuguese soldiers and the principal place of remembrance to honour the Portuguese fallen of the Great War, in Northern France.

Other than the individual graves, and a fireplace near Lyndhurst in the New Forest, built by Portuguese troops, there was no war memorial dedicated to the Portuguese dead of the First World War, in this country until April 2018.

Portugal became a Republic in 1910 after a revolution led by the country’s military toppled King Manuel II, (his father, King Carlos I and elder brother had been assassinated two years earlier.) A liberal constitution was enacted in 1911, and Manuel Jose de Arriaga was elected as the republic’s first president.

By entering the war at the side of the British, Portugal hoped to protect its African Colonies, Angola and Mozambique, which previously had been the subject of secret agreements between the British and the Germans in 1898.

Although there was no formal declaration of war, skirmishes broke out in both Angola and in Mozambique in September 1914, between German and Portuguese colonial troops in Africa, and the Germans instigated tribal revolts.

Initially the British were content to accept material aid from Portugal, but were less enthusiastic about the young Portuguese Republic actually taking part in the fighting in France. The growing logistical problems affecting the Allies and German “U” boat action did however lead the British to ask the Portuguese Government in December 1915 for permission to requisition all the German ships moored in their ports. This was complied with in February 1916, in reaction Germany declared war on Portugal on 9 March 1916.

The Portuguese Expeditionary Corps was established on 22 July 1916, and sent to France in early 1917, under the command of General Tamagnini, where it landed in the Breton port of Brest and was subsequently stationed in Aire-sur-la-lys, a small town in the region of Pas-de-Calais. The Portuguese troops were from then on attached to the 11th Corps of the 1st British Army under General Horne. In October 1917, the Portuguese Expeditionary Force comprised nearly 57,000 men.

In November 1917 General Horne entrusted the Portuguese with the defence of an eleven kilometre front in French Flanders which stretched from Laventie to Festubert. The Portuguese set up their headquarters at Saint Venant. The area they had to defend, a plain between the river Lys and the La Bassee Canal, was very damp and muddy, which soon had a negative effect on morale. The Portuguese soldiers equipped in lightweight uniforms, found it enormously difficult to adapt to the particularly inclement conditions of the winter of 1917/1918. In December 1917 the Portuguese Government fell in a coup d’etat which brought Sidonio Pais to power. Less enthusiastic than its predecessor in its support for the Allies, the new government instituted a new and far less strict system of leave which allowed soldiers to return home for extended periods.

This resulted in the Portuguese Expeditionary Force having fewer officers to lead its men. To make matters worse, Great Britain was devoting all its shipping to the transport of soldiers from the United States, which had entered the war, and therefore had no available capacity to bring in Portuguese soldiers to reinforce their comrades stationed in Flanders. As a consequence, insubordination grew steadily in the ranks.

When the Battle of the Lys broke out on 9 April 1918, two depleted divisions of the Portuguese, wanting in men and officers, had to take on nearly ten German divisions, spread over three successive lines. Except for a few pockets of resistance the Portuguese were completely swept aside by the German offensive, “Operation Georgette.” The next day, shoulder to shoulder with the Scottish, the Portuguese survivors defended La Couture before eventually being forced to withdraw. On 13 April the Portuguese units were sent to Lillers and Steenbecque to reinforce the British 14th and 16th Divisions posted there. The Germans took Estaires, Armentieres, and Bailleul but failed to take Bethune and Hazebrouck. “Operation Georgette,” was called off on 29 April.

Thereafter the Portuguese Expeditionary Force was grouped into a single division and took part in the Allied Offensive of 1918. By the time the ceasefire was announced on 11 November 1918, the Portuguese had reached the river Escaut and had entered Belgium.

Of the 56,500 Portuguese soldiers sent to the Western Front, approximately 2,100 were killed, 5,200 wounded and 7,000 taken prisoner. In honour of the soldiers who defended the village of La Couture the French and Portuguese governments inaugurated a monument there in 1928.

A memorial to the Portuguese fallen of the Great War in the United Kingdom was long overdue. The compelling case of such a memorial to include one dedicated to the last King of Portugal, was strengthened by the exemplary contribution made by Manuel II, when in exile, living at Fulwell Park, Twickenham.

Although he was linked by marriage to the Hohenzollern family, and as such to Kaiser Wilhelm, Manuel II immediately gave his support to the Allies during World War I. He justified himself thus: “It is the policy of our traditional and secular alliance, always followed by my late father. Now all there is left is for us to observe the unfolding of events, fervently hoping for a victory of our allies.” This decision exposed another gap between the exiled King and his followers inside Portugal. Many of them blamed Britain for the fall of the monarchy and sympathised with Germany, but Manuel II insisted that the Anglo-Portuguese Alliance was the best way of assuring Portuguese independence. When Portugal formally entered the war on the side of the Allies in 1916, he shocked his followers by ordering them to support the Republican government, explaining that the survival of the nation must take precedence over the restoration of the monarchy.

The King placed himself at the service of the British Red Cross and wearing the uniform of a British Army Officer, he started touring hospitals throughout the country. Thanks to his efforts, an Orthopaedic Military Hospital was opened in Shepherd’s Bush in 1916, where Manuel II spent many long hours. His name is also associated with the Hammersmith Military Hospital and, above all, linked to the adoption of a new orthopaedic treatment method, which had been followed on the Continent. More tours were made of hospitals in Scotland and in Ireland. All of this work brought the King a certain degree of prominence, to the point of arousing suspicions inside the Portuguese Republic.

At a certain point in 1918, following a nervous breakdown due to exhaustion he went to recuperate in a seaside resort and wrote to King George V: “I feel I should write a few lines to tell you that our thoughts are with you in this terrible moment. I want you to know that our prayers have been, more than ever, with your wonderful troops. May God bless them and bring them a swift victory. I wish I could be of use to you. You know, dear Georgie, that my modest services are always entirely at your disposal and I assure you that it would bring me much joy knowing they could be of use. I did all I could for the Special Orthopaedic Hospitals and I have the consolation of knowing that I fulfilled my duty. But I wish I could do more in yet another anxious moment for you, who I care for so much, and for this country I so much admire and consider to be my second country.”

In contrast with her husband’s activity, his wife Augusta Victoria kept to her private sphere and was often observed in tears during the Mass at St James Parish Church in Pope’s Grove, Twickenham, where the Royal Couple worshipped.

King Manuel II died suddenly aged 42, on 2 July 1932. The epitaph on his tomb reads: “Here rests with God, King D. Manuel II, who died in exile having served his country well.”

Between 1914 and 1918 more than 100,000 Portuguese soldiers went to war. They fought in Africa and in Flanders, with nearly 40,000 casualties. Almost 12,000 men died, including Africans from both Angola and Mozambique, serving in its Armed Forces. Many others were wounded, 6,000 more reported missing and more than 7,000 were taken prisoner. Civilian deaths exceeded the pre-war level by 220,000; 82,000 caused by food shortages and 138,000 by the Spanish ‘flu.

These Memorial Windows were dedicated on 9 April 2018, the Centenary Anniversary of the Battle of the Lys, by His Excellency Manuel Lobo Antunes LVO, Ambassador of Portugal and by Field Marshal the Lord Guthrie GCB, LVO, OBE, DL. They were Blessed by the Right Reverend John Wilson, Titular Bishop of Lindisfarne, and were designed and created by Caroline Benyon. This Memorial was the inspiration of Fr Ulick Loring, Parish Priest.